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  Pesaro: Yesterday

Pesaro is a town where the historical events created a particular and interesting superimposition of artistic and cultural witnesses. The town and the villages which are described in this guide are made up of signs of different ages, so that they create a mosaic of works and heritages.

The most spread and unifying is the one of the Middle Age and of the Renaissance; yet there are some important works of the several historical and artistic ages, such as the Roman one. Pesaro became Roman colony about in 184 b.C. After the fall of the empire, the Gotsi took it and they raze it to round. There are several founds from the Roman Age and they are kept in the Oliveriano Museum.

The mosaics found in the Dome go back to the fourth and fifth centuries a.d., they’re very big and beautiful. Of the Roman Age remains the front of the Dome with two lions. After the medieval events linked to the domination of the Church, to the struggles for the indipendence of the commune, to the struggles between Guelfi and Ghibellini and to the ones with the neighbouring towns, the Malatestas went into the this scene. This family, notwithstanding it had numberous inner struggles (for example the one with the relatives of Rimini), marked deeply this territory with important militar, civil and religious works.

For example the gates of the church of S. Francesco, of the church of S. Agostino and, over all, the former church of S. Domenico (which now hosts the main office of the central post), the big fortress of Gradara, and at last numberous fortified suburbs. After the Malatestas the Sforzas governed the town, and they marked the town deeply, too.

First of all they charged the famous architect Laurana to complete the fortress of Costanza, with project of Giorgio Marchesi from Settignano.

Other important architectures of this age are the Palazzo Ducale, which is the main point of the town, and the first nucleus of the rich Villa Imperiale, on San Bartolo hill. Probably the period which gave the biggest number of signs is the one of the Della Roveres, who since 1513 make Pesaro the capital of the “state” they governed for almost 120 years, until the death of Francesco Maria II in 1631. Many churches go back to this age (S. Giovanni Battista, S. Ubaldo) and many buildings which distinguished the centre town (palazzo Americi, palazzo Gabrielli, palazzo Lorena, palazzo Baviera and many others).

The seventeenth century coincides with the beginning of the government of the State of the Church. There aren’t many works of this period, only the Theatre of the Sun, now Teatro Rossini, which due its present form to the works made at the beginning of the nineteenth century. During the eighteenth century the town had a new energy and many important buildings were made (Palazzo Toschi Mosca, now it hosts the main office of the Civic Museums, Palazzo Mazzolari Mosca, Palazzo Macchirelli and others) and even many churches (for example the remaking of the church of S. Maria Maddalena and, in the nearby, the great stairway Vanvitelliano, which each year hosts art exposures).

A deep artistical mark is the one left by the liberty age which express itself mostly in the buildings of some rich maritime country houses. In Pesaro there are wonderful examples, such as the floreal decorations of the house Ruggeri.

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